Appendix 7: Answers to Reinforcement Quizzes
Answers to Reinforcement Quiz ñ Section IV, Chapter 2
1. How can input indicators be expressed in performance measurement?
both in financial terms (dollars) and nonfinancial terms (number of
b. only in financial terms (dollars)
only in unit costs (that is, cost per unit of outcome)
d. only in per capita terms (such as cost per 1,000 population)
Answer: (a). Program inputs can be expressed either in dollar terms
(such as salaries and related fringe benefits) or in nonfinancial terms
(such as number of employees or number of person-days). Unit costs
(answer c) result from using input data to develop efficiency indicators.
Answer (d) is incomplete because it ignores the use of nonfinancial
expressions; further, an argument can be made that converting total
costs to per capita costs can add an element to efficiency to the
2. In performance measurement, the term ìoutputsî refers to:
a. the number of staff persons assigned to a program.
b. the cost per unit of a program.
the results achieved by a program.
d. the physical quantity of services provided by a program.
Answer: (d). In performance measurement, the term ìoutputsî relates
to the physical quantity of services provided. Answer (a) is an example
of ìinputs.î Answer (b) is an ìefficiency indicator.î Answer (c) refers to
3. Considering performance measurement at all three levels of government,
which of the following pairs of words best define the term ìoutcomeî?
inputs and outputs
b. results and effects
activities and services
d. missions and strategies
Answer: (b). The term ìoutcomeî is used to describe the extent to
which results were achieved or impacts were made as a result of
governmental programs.
4. In performance measurement, the crime rate (number of crimes per 1,000
residents) would generally be considered as what kind of indicator?
a. an input indicator
b. an outcome indicator
an irrelevant indicator
an efficiency indicator
Online version, for personal use only
AGA Study Guide 3, 2016 Edition

Appendix 7: Answers to Reinforcement Quizzes
Answer: (b). The crime rate is generally reported as an outcomes
indicator, because one of the ultimate goals (intended results) of police
enforcement programs is to reduce the crime rate.
5. Which of the following is considered an outcome indicator?
the amount spent on the inspection program
b. the average cost per inspection
the number of inspections completed during the year
the absence of food-borne illnesses in the program covered by
Answer: (d). Outcomes relate to results achieved, and answer (d) is
the only one of the four that relates to results. Answer (a) relates to
inputs, answer (b) relates to efficiency and answer (c) relates to
6. Which of the following statements is closest to an outcome?
The student teacher ratio was 15:1, compared with 16:1 last year.
b. Total expenditures for teachers were $14,370,000, compared with
$13,920,000 last year.
Seventy percent of the fourth-grade students scored proficient or
better on the state math exam, compared with 72 percent last year.
d. Sixty percent of the education dollar was spent on classroom
teaching, compared with 58 percent last year.
Answer: (c). An outcome is a result that was achieved, at least in part,
because of services provided. Among the choices provided in this
question, the only outcome or result achieved is the proficiency of the
fourth-grade students on the state math exam.
7. Under what circumstances are citizen surveys considered valid indicators
of the quality of service delivery?
a. They can never be considered valid indicators.
b. if at least 5 percent of the citizens are surveyed
c. if an appropriate statistical sample is used
d. only if citizen names are drawn from motor vehicle records
Answer: (c). Citizen surveys are an accepted means of ascertaining
the quality of services performed by governmental entities. To be valid
performance measures, however, the surveys should be taken pursuant
to appropriate statistical sampling methods. A sample of at least 5
percent (answer b) is likely to be acceptable, but will probably be more
than necessary. Using only motor vehicle records (answer d) will
probably bias the sample.
Online version, for personal use only
AGA Study Guide 3, 2016 Edition

Appendix 7: Answers to Reinforcement Quizzes
8. Which of the following expresses performance efficiency?
a. outputs divided by outcomes
b. outcomes multiplied by outputs
inputs divided by outputs
d. outputs multiplied by inputs
Answer: (c). One of the basic ways of measuring efficiency is to
compare unit costs over time and with other entities performing the
same function. Unit costs are obtained by dividing inputs (dollar
amounts of resources expended) by outputs (quantities of services
9. Which of the following statements regarding performance measures is
Performance measures can include ...

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AGA CGFM Study Guide 3: Governmental Financial Management and Control